The city, originally known as Khadki, was founded by Malik Ambar (ʿAnbar) in 1610. After the fall of the Nizam Shāhī dynasty in 1633, the city came under Mughal rule. It was later renamed Aurangabad after it became the headquarters of Aurangzeb during his viceroyalty over the Deccan. The mausoleum complex of Bibi Ka Maqbara, an imitation of the Taj Mahal in Agra, was built in honour of his first wife, Dilras Banu Begum (died 1657). Aurangabad remained the headquarters of the independent nizams (rulers), but it declined when the capital was moved to Hyderabad in Hyderabad princely state. With the dissolution of the princely state in 1948, Aurangabad was included in Hyderabad state in newly independent India. It later became part of Bombay state (1956–60) before that state was divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat.
Aurangabad is known for its artistic silk fabrics, particularly shawls. The seat of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University (1958), it is a prominent educational centre, and several branch colleges are located there. The city is also a popular tourist destination, mainly the result of its proximity to the Ellora and Ajanta cave temples, both of which were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1983. Pop. (2001) 873,311; (2011) 1,175,116.